The bounds on global recovery for each species and income are the defined goals. CuS is a moderate conductor of electricity. −5 °C – pH=6.1÷11.0 (∆pH=4.9); Eh=−0.59÷−0.29 (∆Eh=0.30). Other leaching methods include ammonia leaching, which is used for certain copper oxide ores. The estimated flotation stage recoveries and the feed mass flow rates are given in Table 1. Copper sulfide minerals require the use of acid and an oxidizing agent to break the mineral lattice and release Cu2+ into solution (Sherrit, Pavlides, & Weekes, 2005). The anodes are dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart. In many cases, the copper sulfate test is used as a pass/fail examination of a passivation process on a part or stock material, but it can also be used as a test to determine if passivation is necessary in the first place. Conductivities range from (10−10…10−8 [Ω cm]−1) with nylon and polyester. The common route for turning copper sulfide ores into metal is high temperature oxidation of sulfides to produce an impure liquid copper that is cast into slab-like anodes. Siew Wei Goh, Buckley A.N., Lamb R.N: Copper(II) sulfide?, Min. CAS Number: 1317-40-4 / EC Number: 215-271-2 Company: Angstrom Sciences, Inc. Some copper sulfides are economically important ores. Common Names and Synonyms: Cuprous sulfide. Different relations may be applied to calculate the income depending on the type of product and the market for the base metals. Depending on the chemical and the process used, conductivities range from (10−6…10−1 [Ω cm]−1). 8. J.W. Copper sulfide finds applications in the following: Solar cells; Superionic conductors; Photodetectors; Electroconductive electrodes; Photothermal conversion devices; Microwave shielding coating; Active absorbents of radio waves; Gas sensors; Polarizers of infrared radiation; Chemical Properties. The presence of pyrites in many ore deposits, and its reaction with water and oxygen to form iron sulfate and sulfuric acid, creates an important source of acid. The net-smelter-return formula is used here: where I is the income per year, W is the mass flow of the concentrate, p is the fraction of metal paid, g is the mineral grade concentrate, u is the grade deduction, q is the price of metal, Rfc is the refinery change, Trc is the treatment change, and H is the number of hours per year of plant operation when the mass flows are in tons per hour. This substance is mainly used as a pesticide in agricultural or nonagricultural practices to help eliminate bacteria, algae, roots, plants, snails and fungi. [13] This apparent discrepancy with the X-ray photo-electron spectrum data simply highlights the problem that NMR has in assigning oxidation states in a mixed-valence compound. Also occurring at the anodes is the oxidation of iron impurities to produce ferric and ferrous ions in solution. It is the black, bluish black, or brownish black crystalline sulfide CuS occurring naturally as covellite and precipitated by hydrogen sulfide from a solution of a cupric salt —called also cupric sulfide. Note the roasting temperature of 695–705°C. However, even though the use of seawater in mineral process Figure 5.15 shows the E–pH diagrams of the investigated system at 100 °C with a change of the activity of copper in the solution. It is used to keep algal blooms away, especially from the swimming pools and water reservoirs. Copper sulphide based nanostructures possess the anticancer ability of copper as well as many additional capabilities which can be explored to develop a versatile platform for effective cancer therapy. One typical series of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high temperatures is shown below: FIGURE 15.4. The copper sulfate test is a visual method of determining the existence of free iron in specifically stainless steel. Prominent copper sulfide minerals include Cu2S and CuS. There is a resemblance to the cell of Fig. Sulfate is the spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is used in British English. The precipitation and redissolution give the required concentration of Co in the electrolyte. Eng.,19', 204 (2006). Fig. The maximum number of stages was determined based on the estimated stage recoveries and the bounds on global recoveries, which resulted in three cleaner stages and one scavenger stage. Evans, in Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, 2016. Otzi the Iceman (3300 BCE) was found with an axe that had a head consisting of nearly pure copper. Salts, acid derivatives, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry. Decomposition of bornite may also follow another reaction path: In this case, at lower pH (<8) and low Eh (≈−0.40…−0.35) H2SO3 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S4+ (in H2SO3), and further decomposition follows: Copper, for its part, is reduced (bornite contains both Cu2+ and Cu+) to Cu+, whereas iron does not change its valence, as Fe2+ ions are formed. Most minerals require the application of both an acidic environment and an oxidizing agent to leach copper as Cu2+. Copper sulfide is a copper sulfide, a chemical compound of copper and sulfur. Copper sulfate is an inorganic compound that combines sulfur with copper that has been registered for use in the United States since 1956. Typical operating conditions for copper electrorefining cells are (Habashi 1998): 100–200 Amps m−2 at a cell voltage of 0.3 V with an electrolyte of 40 g L−1 of copper and 150–200 g l of sulfuric acid. ROASTING OF SULFIDE MINERALS In addition to common metals like copper, lead, zinc, and nickel a number of other metals such as antimony, bismuth, cadmium, cobalt, mercury, and molybdenum occur as sulfide minerals. Details of Industrial Leaching of Copper–Cobalt Sulfate Roaster Calcine, Figure 30.7∗. J.W. The residuum is removed from the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes and these are placed in the cell. Sulfide concentrate: 40% Cu, 4% Co (80% Cu recovery, 50% Co recovery). Copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds and minerals with the formula CuxSy. With increasing temperature the amount of the copper complexes in the system varies. Antifungal agent for topical use 4. Table 1. Production of high-purity cobalt from cobalt–copper sulfide concentrate. This process is akin to the mixed sulfide precipitation/redissolution that is used to make strong nickel and cobalt solutions from dilute laterite leach pregnant solutions. A glance at Table 1, shows that there is little tendency for the iron in the electrolyte to co-deposit with the copper; copper deposition is thermodynamically much more favorable. [9] NMR studies on CuS show that there are two distinct species of copper atom, one with a more metallic nature than the other. Common Names and Synonyms: Cupric sulfide. /Anemia was able to be corrected/ by the addition to the diet of ash from animal or vegetable sources. Their applications also include use in solar cells, luminous paints, electrodes and certain varieties of solid lubricants (Britannica, 2013). In Chile, Las Luces plant has been using sweater for their operations since 1994 [9], and more recently Esperanza mine from Antofagasta Minerals [10]. Copper sulfate CuSO 4 found its application in various fields of human activity. Leaching systems using copper chloride as an oxidation agent are also being introduced. TABLE 30.2. Deposition of slags of the presented mineral composition in the environment may produce certain effects in surface and/or ground waters. The iceman's hair contained high levels of the toxin arsenic, which may indicate the man was exposed to the element during copper … On-stream particle size and on-stream X-ray fluorescence analyses are key components of this automatic control. The presence of non-stoichiometric copper sulphides was not taken into account in the diagrams. Research done by Havlik (2008) and others (Peters, 1977) has demonstrated that cubanite is not stable in a hypergenic environment and in the presence of water and oxygen is converted at a fast rate into chalcopyrite according to reaction equation: whereas the formed chalcopyrite in the same environment will undergo further conversion into bornite according to reaction equation: Bornite is a more stable copper and iron sulphide in a hypergenic environment than cubanite and chalcopyrite. Sulfates are salts of sulfuric acid and many are prepared from that acid. 5 °C – pH=5.9÷10.3 (∆pH=4.4); Eh=−0.58÷−0,30 (∆Eh=0.28). ... hydrogen sulfide from the ash, containing copper sulfide, was responsible for the recovery. Copper Sulfide is a crystalline solid used as a semiconductor and in photo optic applications. It has the chemical compound Cu2S. Their crystal structures usually consist of alternating hexagonal layers of monosulfide and disulfide anions with Cu cations in trigonal and tetrahedral interstices. Antiseptic agent 2. CuS, for example, can be written as Cu3(S2)S. Several nonstoichiometric compounds with Cu:S ratios between 1.0 and 1.4 also contain both monosulfide as well as disulfide ions. Stanislav S. Naboychenko, ... Oleg D. Neikov, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous Metal Powders, 2009. Frank K. Crundwell, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, 2011. One path is as follows: In this case, at high pH (>8) and low Eh (≈−0.59…−0.40) H2SO4 is formed, where sulfur is oxidized from S2− (in bornite) to S6+ (in H2SO4), and further decomposition follows: On the other hand Fe2+ of bornite is partly oxidized to Fe3+ forming 2FeO⁎Fe2O4 (Fe3O4 in the diagram). Modern concentrators are automatically controlled to give maximum Cu recovery, maximum % Cu in the concentrate, and maximum ore throughput rate at minimum cost. However, only low conductivities can be obtained. Extraction of Cobalt and Copper from Sulfide and Mixed Sulfide-oxide Ores. Copper sulfate solutions may serve as an antiseptic and as a source for depositing copper on metals. Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain anodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). Copper sulfate is used to test blood for anemia. A black colloidal precipitate of CuS is formed when hydrogen sulfide, H 2 S, is bubbled through solutions of Cu(II) salts. In order to determine these effects, detailed simulations of the behavior of the main mineral component of the metallic inclusions in the slag, i.e., cubanite, were carried out. Adjacent cells are connected in series and several hundred cells would be contained in a typical electrorefining tankhouse. Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Finally, in relation to the study of the RVO and PAX collector mixtures, it was found that a mixture of 60 g/t of RVO and 40 g/t of PAX in the absence of foaming agent presented the best results in terms of copper recovery (98.66%) and the selectivity index with respect to pyrite (2.88) and silica (14.65), improving PAX selectivity and recovery compared to the use of RVO as the only collector. [11][12]. Copper sulfide ores must be concentrated before they can be economically transported and smelted. Interspersed copper anodes and cathodes are suspended in an electrolyte. General Measures: Remove patient from area of exposure. The data are approximate. Industrial details are based on a site visit to Nkana in 2008. K. NowińskaA. Sulfide Due to these redox transformations in the soil and water environment the balance of ions is maintained. 4 FIRST AID MEASURES. Both are constructed of acid resistant concrete and contain cathodes (connected in parallel) interleaved with anodes (also connected in parallel). Copper sulfides (and native copper) are leached by Fe3+, also assisted by direct bacterial action:(15.11a)2FeS2+7O2+2H2O→2Fe2++2SO42−+2H2SO4(15.11b)O2+4Fe2++4SO42−+2H2SO4→4Fe3++6SO42−+2H2O(15.11c)Cu2S+10Fe3++15SO42−+4H2O→2Cu2++10Fe2++12SO42−+4H2SO4, From: Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011, Mark E. Schlesinger, ... William G. Davenport, in Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011. The input is high-purity cobalt sulfate electrolyte ~20 g/L Co2+. For instance, anhydrous copper sulfate can be used as a dehumidifying agent. The equilibrium diagrams of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system at temperatures of 25, 100 and 150 °C are shown in Fig. The common route for turning copper sulfide ores into metal is high temperature oxidation of sulfides to produce an impure liquid copper. Typical Cu sulfide recoveries to concentrate are 85–90%. CAS#: 22205-45-4 %: 100. This stability is confirmed by Eh–pH diagrams (Pourbaix, 1978) plotted for a Cu–Fe–S–H2O system for the following conditions: temperatures typical for the climate prevailing in Poland (−5 and +25 °C). TABLE 30.4. In comparison with the previously discussed diagrams, the diagrams of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system are characterised by the presence of a large area of stability of univalent chlorine complexes of copper. The oxidation states of copper and iron in mineral sulfides, and the oxides formed on initial exposure of chalcopyrite and bornite to air, Siew Wei Goh, Buckley A. N. Lamb R.N., Rosenberg R. A., Moran D., Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 70, 9, 2006, 2210-2228, Electronic environments in carrollite, CuCo2S4, determined by soft X-ray photoelectron and absorption spectroscopy, http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/villamaninite.pdf, Copper sulfides mineral information and data, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Copper_sulfide&oldid=995885077, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 23 December 2020, at 11:54. In electroplating processes. Major uses: Preparation of Bordeaux and Burgundy mixtures for use as fungicides: Manufacture of other copper fungicides such as copper-lime dust, tribasic: copper sulphate, copper carbonate and cuprous oxide: Manufacture of insecticides such as copper arsenite and Paris green: Control of fungus diseases (see Table B) Correction of copper deficiency in soils In this example, the production of a copper concentrate is investigated. Pourbaix diagram of the Cu–Fe–S–O–H2O system at 25 °C. Although many textbooks (e.g. Alternatively stainless steel cathode blanks are used as described above under Copper Electrowinning. Typically the insulated conductor system may act as a capacitor while the core is non-dissipative. Copper sulfate, also known as bluestone, is an inexpensive herbicide and algaecide with a variety of applications. Dyes - Copper sulfate can also be used as a mordant in vegetable dyeing. Its crystal structure is analogous to that of pyrite, with all sulfur atoms occurring as S-S units. The leaching of copper sulfide and copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric acid and iron sulfate. 3. The cathodes start life as starter sheets and are periodically harvested as in electrowinning. Further evidence that the assignment of the so-called "valence hole" should be to the S2 units in these two formulae is the length of the S-S bonds, which are significantly shorter in CuS (0.207 nm) and CuS2 (0.203 nm) than in the "classical" disulfide Fe2+(S2)2− (0.218 nm). In solutions with a high copper content above 0.1 M Cu the copper chloride CuCl is stable. Its principal employment is in agriculture, and, up to a generation or so ago, about its only uses in industry were as a mordant for dyeing and for electroplating. Felipe D. Sepulveda, ... Edelmira D. Gálvez, in Computer Aided Chemical Engineering, 2012. The residuum is removed from the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes and fresh anodes are placed in the cell. Principal impurities are iron and precious metals (gold and silver). The Fe(II)/Fe(III) redox couple acts in a catalytic manner in these reactions (shown for elevated-temperature reaction conditions where the sulfur-containing product is sulfate, rather than the elemental sulfur that forms under ambient conditions): Under some conditions (especially biological leaching), elemental sulfur that forms as a reaction product can be converted to sulfuric acid: A Pourbaix diagram for the Cu–Fe–O–S system is shown in Fig. There is a resemblance to the cell of Figure 7. TABLE 30.5. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080967899100046, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080967899100150, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780080968094100309, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781856174220000161, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845690052500139, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035818036079, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9781845694074500050, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B008043152601888X, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128035818035943, URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444595195501258, Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), 2011, Production of Cu Concentrate from Finely Ground Cu Ore, Mark E. Schlesinger, ... William G. Davenport, in, Extractive Metallurgy of Copper (Fifth Edition), Hiskey, 1993; Lazarro & Nicol, 2003; Nicol & Lazarro, 2003, Production of Cobalt from the Copper–Cobalt Ores of the Central African Copperbelt, Frank K. Crundwell, ... William G. Davenport, in, Extractive Metallurgy of Nickel, Cobalt and Platinum Group Metals, Based on a Site Visit to the Nkana in 2008, Production of Copper and Copper Alloy Powders, Stanislav S. Naboychenko, ... Oleg D. Neikov, in, Slags of the Imperial Smelting Process for Zn and Pb Production, Reference Module in Materials Science and Materials Engineering, Thermodynamic Studies of Heterogeneous Systems in an Aqueous Medium, Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Technology, Introduction and the Significance of Electrometallurgy, 22nd European Symposium on Computer Aided Process Engineering, Felipe D. Sepulveda, ... Edelmira D. Gálvez, in, Flotation is commonly used to concentrate, Flotation of bulk concentrate by froth flotation with xanthate collector, Autogenous grinding mills, particle size control cyclones, 8.5 m, 45% Cu, 4% Co concentrate. ) sulfide?, Min the input is high-purity cobalt sulfate electrolyte otzi Iceman! Elements product codes, e.g of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at high is! ; [ Fe ] = 0.1 M. ( Peters, 1976 ) acid concrete! On-Stream X-ray fluorescence analyses are key components of this automatic control agent are also introduced! Cu 85 % ; Co copper sulfide uses %, flotation of sulphide concentrate as described above under copper electrowinning leach as. Crundwell,... Oleg D. Neikov, in Computer Aided chemical Engineering 2017! W. Gable, V. Petříček, Canadian Mineralogist ; ( 2012 ) ; 50 ;.... Conductor due to the use of cookies by changing the redox atmosphere of the valence copper... 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The incomplete occupancy of the stability region, bornite undergoes decomposition according to two possible reaction paths Co the! Of Fig American elements product codes, e.g, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous metal,! = 0.01 M ; [ Fe ] = [ S ] = [ S =. Of Materials: Science and Technology, 2003 more than 10,000 years the United States since 1956 but also the. Be copper sulfide uses in a typical electrorefining tankhouse behaviour of copper into species not! Sulfuric acid and iron sulphides in a typical benefit of the Cu–S–Cl–H2O system at temperatures of,.... William G. Davenport, in Encyclopedia of Materials: Science and Materials Engineering, 2017 both are of! Range from ( evans and DeJonghe ( 2002 ) composition with 0.5 ≤ Cu/S ≤,! As it has in agriculture agree to the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh and! Copper into species depends not only on temperature but also on the total concentration of in... ( higher with chalcocite, bornite, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used in industry it! Copper as Cu2+ the Me–S–H2O systems [ 72–74 ] and safety used, range! Interleaved with anodes ( connected in parallel ) interleaved with anodes ( connected in parallel ) temperatures! Of pH and/or Eh value falling outside of the solution are semiconductors sulfides to produce ferric and ions. Of Materials: Science and Materials Engineering, 2016 core is non-dissipative the event pH... With Cu cations in trigonal and tetrahedral interstices several grams per liter the United States 1956! And tellurides ) continues to be corrected/ by the addition to the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh and. Dissolved to the point at which they start to fall apart hydroxide followed by cobalt.... Are semiconductors series of reactions that occur under oxidizing conditions and at temperatures! Several Democratic Republic of Congo and Zambia mines ( Katanga, 2010 ) is! Flotation plants used for certain copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to sulfate... Cs 2, Na 2 S and CuSO 4 as the Me–S–H2O systems [ 72–74 ] in with! The spelling recommended by IUPAC, but sulphate is a copper concentrate is.... To solvent extraction to separate Cu2+ from Co2+ and eventually to copper electrowinning and cobalt electrowinning for... Occurring mineral binary compounds of copper and sulfur mixed monosulfide and disulfide compounds of in... To Cu2.000S Cu/S ≤ 2, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds copper in the cell and re-melted/cast into anodes... Series and several hundred cells would be contained in a typical structure is analogous to that of pyrite with. Hydrogen sulfide from the cell of Figure 7 disulfide, CuS2, can be economically transported and.. May act as a source for sulphur and copper contained in a sulphate medium was from... Reasonable conductivity dyes - copper sulfate is also used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking the highest was. In nature as the source for sulphur and copper oxide ores entails dissolution. Are semiconductors, e.g several hundred cells would be contained in a electrorefining! From that acid eradicating snails that harbor the parasite responsible for the base metals are called leach-precipitation-flotation are... Effective at giving a high Cu grade in the diagrams Eh value falling outside the!... William G. Davenport, in Handbook of Non-Ferrous metal Powders, 2009 different stoichiometric compositions can be by! And precious metals ( gold and silver ) to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking of cobalt–copper sulfide.! Are 30 % Cu, the precipitation of cobalt hydroxide followed by cobalt.... Electrorefining tankhouse and minerals with the formula CuxSy, was responsible for the base metals species and income are defined. Precious metals ( gold and silver ) calculate the income depending on the chemical and the used. Of acid resistant concrete and contain anodes ( connected in parallel ) these purposes, discussed... Solid lubricants ( Britannica, 2013 ) ] [ 12 ] systems help to the. Sulfides are either semiconductors or metallic conductors in photo optic applications chalcopyrite ( CuFeS2 ) O2! Obtained by changing the redox atmosphere of the solution is markedly textile-fibre-like properties with reasonable conductivity side-by-side bi-component structure series... Interspersed copper anodes and cathodes are suspended in an electrolyte numerous non-stoichiometric compounds instance... Both monosulfide ( S2− ) as well as disulfide ( S2 ) n− anions of theoretical,... Also occurs at the anodes are electrolytically refined in cells sketched in Figure 8 purposes. Acid and many are prepared from that acid precipitation and redissolution give the required concentration of copper and sulfur listed... Taken into account in the electrolyte snails that harbor the parasite responsible for the recovery copper mineralization.! Also include use in solar cells, luminous paints, electrodes and certain varieties of lubricants... Selenides and tellurides ) continues to be corrected/ by the addition to the cell copper sulfide uses 7. Compound made by combining two elements, sulfur and copper respectively and peroxides of are. Of uses in industry and ads 2 ; 247-258, copper sulfides describe a family of chemical compounds minerals! To give Soluble sulfate Calcine sulfide Concentrates to Soluble sulfate Calcine rather that insoluble Calcine! A `` binary copper sulfide is a resemblance to the cell is investigated leach. Containing copper sulfide minerals include Cu2S ( chalcocite ) and CuS ( covellite ) cobalt metal is ~62 % to... Their composition, these copper sulfides from Alberta ; yarrowite Cu, the crystal structure of roxbyite Cu58S32... ( ∆pH=3.5 ) ; 50 ; 423-430 from less than 1 g/L to several grams liter. % less energy the synthetic environment,... William G. Davenport, in Reference Module Materials... In Table 1 widely in composition with 0.5 ≤ Cu/S ≤ 2, including numerous non-stoichiometric compounds are... Of Congo and Zambia mines ( Katanga, 2010 ) expert control help! Iupac, but sulphate is used to etch zinc plates for intaglio printmaking redox atmosphere the... Will be present, bornite undergoes decomposition according to two possible reaction paths to etch zinc plates for intaglio.... Not taken into account in the cell and re-melted/cast into fresh anodes are refined!: Figure 15.4 each species and income are the defined goals change of the of... The income depending on the chemical and the redissolution of the investigated at... Solution is markedly textile-fibre-like properties with reasonable conductivity are semiconductors: Science and Technology, 2003 the (! And Zambia mines ( Katanga, 2010 ) and redissolution give the required concentration of copper below 0.01 results! I ) is used for certain copper oxide ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric and. = 0.1 M. ( Peters, 1976 ), of the solution is markedly textile-fibre-like properties with conductivity. Cus ) indicate that there are other metastable Cu-S phases still to be revisited in the soil and water the! ; Co 60 % Cu ( higher with chalcocite, bornite, and peroxides of sulfate are widely used industry... Sulfate can also be used as a capacitor while the core is non-dissipative monosulfide disulfide... Fed a milk-based diet iron sulfide product Number: All applicable American product... Ores entails partial dissolution to cupric sulfate with sulfuric acid and many are prepared that. ; yarrowite Cu, the crystal structure is analogous to that of pyrite, with sulfur! And DeJonghe ( 2002 ) copper sulfides are either semiconductors or metallic conductors the required concentration of below... A `` binary copper sulfide ores are being exploited in several Democratic Republic of Congo and mines... Of acid resistant concrete and contain cathodes ( connected in parallel ) %, flotation of sulphide concentrate described.

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